The mature harvesting technology of sugar beet (A) Beet ripening and harvest Beet is a biennial crop, the first year is just a vegetative stage, can not flower and fruit, so it can not reach the botanical maturity, can only be based on its late vegetative growth Biological characteristics to determine its biological maturity. The characteristics of ripening beet biology are: most of the old leaves turn yellow and wither; leaves evacuation, leaves stand or squint; petiole chew with sweet taste, while salty taste fades; tuber growth is slow and tends to stop, texture It becomes brittle, the highest level of sugar is reached, and the purity is about 85%. More than 80% of the plants in the entire plot can be harvested when they have the above characteristics. Beet sugar plants tend to harvest sugar beets just before the ripening period of the beet biology. The main signs of the ripening process of sugar beet are: the root weight and sugar content meet the sugar standard requirements, and the content of non-sugar components in the roots is low, and the purity reaches over 80%. The external shape is that most of the leaves turn from dark green to light green, the old leaves turn yellow, and a few are withered; Different cropping areas or different plots in the same area, because of different climate, soil, varieties, cultivation techniques and other conditions, beet ripening period is not consistent. In regions with long frost-free periods, mature periods are later than those in squatter or sandy land; sugar beet growth is late in the period of rainy and high-temperature years mature; while drought, sunshine is abundant, and the temperature difference between day and night is large, the maturity period is advanced. Under the same external conditions, the maturity of the high-yield varieties was later than that of the high-glucose varieties. According to the specific conditions of each piece of sugar beet, reasonably determine the harvest period, arrange the harvest order, and obtain higher sugar yield. Because the harvest sooner or later, not only the root yield, but more importantly, the sugar content and impurity content of the roots. The test results showed that, under normal conditions, the sugar beet sugar accumulation period can increase the sugar content by 1 to 1.5 degrees every 10 days. Therefore, the harvest is too early not only to produce low yields, but also to have low sugar content in the root tuber, and to have many non-sugar substances and poor quality. On the contrary, when the harvest is too late, the sugar beets are susceptible to freezing injury, which results in an increase in invert sugar content, a decrease in the sugar production rate of sucrose, and an impatience in the preservation of tubers. At the same time, too late harvest also affects the autumn tillage preparation and irrigation in autumn and winter, which is unfavorable for the growth of post-cultivated crops. According to the results of research conducted by the Beet Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, the optimum harvest period of sugar beet should begin when the average daily minimum temperature in the fall reaches the critical temperature for beet growing (5 degrees) and ends before the arrival of â€œdry frostâ€. The suitable harvest period of sugar beet in northeast planting area is from late September to mid-October; in North China, it is mid-October; in northwestern area, it is mid-to-late October. Of course, the specific harvest time in each place should also be determined based on the actual growth of sugar beet in that year. (B) The method of harvesting sugar beets At present, except for a few conditional state-owned farms that employ mechanical excavation, they are generally harvested using animal power or excavated by hand. That is, the traction plough or the plow is used to pull the beet ridges 15 to 18 cm. In order to prevent squaring, the front wheels of the shovel plough can be removed and two transport wheels are installed with a wheelbase equal to the ridge width. The two rounds of walking in the ditch will ensure that the plow will move forward steadily. Mechanical harvesting of sugar beets mainly uses tractors to remove the four-plow plough or five-plow ploughs from the plow wall for excavation. Plow shovel into the depth of 20 to 22 cm. The agricultural sweet 1GZ-2 cultivator designed and manufactured by the China Academy of Agricultural Sciences' Beet Research Institute is ideal for tapping sugar beets. The machine is driven by small four-wheel tractors. Each time, two beets are loosened and the roots are cut off. The roots are loosened in situ without losing water, which can prevent the beetroots from freezing and meet the operation requirements of the piles, cutting piles, and cutting operations. At the same time, it can be loosened in advance, with less soil and roots to facilitate cutting. The aircraft operating efficiency is 4 acres / hour. Beet mining, picking up and stacking should be done continuously so that the roots will not be exposed to the sun for a long time, they will lose water, wilt or suffer freezing damage, and they will lose their quality. When the sugar beet is piled up, the soil on the roots should be shaken off, and the roots should be turned inside out and the leaves should be turned into a round heap or a long stack to prevent the roots from losing a lot of water or freezing damage.
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