In recent years, there has been unprecedented prosperity in the feed industry in China, which has greatly promoted the development of the aquaculture industry and produced tremendous economic and social benefits. However, we have also seen that the phenomenon of exceeding the standard of toxic and harmful substances in feed has become more and more serious, and the series of negative impacts brought about by the safety of livestock products have also become increasingly prominent. These poisonous and harmful substances exist in the feed with a single compound or multiple compounds. In animals, these toxic components may be converted into substances with greater activity and toxicity, thereby exerting toxic effects or causing carcinogenic and teratogenic effects. More seriously, these toxic and hazardous substances will not only cause a decline in the quality and yield of livestock and poultry products, but also will accumulate in the body and remain in the body, and pass through the food chain to humans, causing serious harm to human health, and at the same time The export of poultry products was blocked, resulting in undue losses, which seriously affected the development of animal husbandry. How to control the residues of toxic and harmful substances in feed is particularly important. In view of this, we have made some observations based on some information accumulated over the years. Bacteria control and management measures in feedstuffs 1. Raw material processing areas before processing of feedstuffs raw materials should be strictly isolated from the processed and semi-finished products treated and cleaned areas after processing. Raw materials and semi-finished products, finished products production equipment, equipment dedicated. The raw material handlers share with the processors. 2. The feed manufacturer should mainly prevent Salmonella contamination from raw materials or semi-finished products and finished products from the environment. That is, the storage, processing, and manufacturing processes of raw materials, storage and transportation of finished products should prevent Salmonella contamination, including the prevention of flies, mites and other sanitary pests, and the intrusion of animals such as rats, dogs, cats, and birds. Restrict the entry and exit of outsiders and clearly separate the operating areas of operators. Regular cleaning, disinfection of the environment, equipment, etc. 3, fermented feed enterprises in the fermentation of flour, yeast protein, fermented rapeseed cake, a single bacterial protein, etc., to pass through the strict selection of special strains, under the appropriate process conditions, can inhibit the growth of bacteria, so that harmful fermentation feed Little or no bacteria. However, at present, some domestic small-scale fermentation feed mills, under simple conditions, have a high rate of bacteria in the fermentation process and no rapid drying process. They rely on natural air-drying to easily breed miscellaneous bacteria or harmful bacteria. Therefore, bacteria should be reduced during fermentation, and rapid drying is an effective measure to ensure the safety of fermented feed. The physical or chemical treatment of feed mainly has several methods: 1. The feed is made into pellets. Hot steam of 120Â°C-150Â°C is blown into the feed ingredients and granulated by a molding machine. At this time, since the granular raw material is maintained at 80Â°C to 90Â°C within a few seconds to 1 minute, it has a strong inhibitory and killing effect against Salmonella or Escherichia coli having weak heat resistance. 2. Add organic acids such as acetic acid, acetic acid and propionic acid in the feed, and the concentration between 0.6% and 6% can kill the common Salmonella and other harmful bacteria in the feed. 3. Ethylene oxide gas is used for sterilization, but this kind of gas requires special equipment for sterilization. Moreover, the toxicity or flammability of such gas is very strong, and care must be taken in handling. The control of mold in feed is caused by molds producing some toxic metabolites (mycotoxins), which not only lead to acute and chronic poisoning of livestock and poultry, but also remains in the muscles and internal organs of livestock and poultry. Mycotoxins are introduced into the body through food. Therefore, strengthening the anti-mildew and detoxification work in feed production is an essential part of controlling the residues of toxic and harmful substances in feed and animal-derived foods. Anti-mildew should enable synergy between the production of raw materials and the feeding of compound feed into the process of animal feeding in order to prevent the feed from being contaminated by mold and mycotoxins. 1. Breeding Resistant Varieties: It has been reported that aflatoxins formed on impervious cottonseeds are higher than permeable cottonseeds; peanut varieties with low vitamin E on seed coats are resistant to the infection of Aspergillus flavus and the formation of aflatoxin. 2. Appropriate planting and harvesting techniques: Planting techniques such as crop rotation and appropriate harvesting methods should be adopted to minimize mold and mycotoxin contamination. 3. Strictly control the moisture in the feed and its raw materials: This is one of the key measures for anti-mildew. 4, to improve storage conditions: The main methods are to improve the structure of the warehouse and health conditions, reduce moisture, temperature, oxygen concentration and so on. 5, the use of chemical anti-mold agent: This is the current conventional anti-mildew measures in feed. Propionic acid as described above is the most effective and economically effective anti-mold agent. Control of Lead in Poisonous and Harmful Elements in Feeds: Controlling the content of lead in raw materials, especially feeds or high leaded feeds in high lead areas, is an effective method to reduce lead in compound feeds. Arsenic: There are several common methods: 1. Strictly control the arsenic content of raw materials, especially those with high arsenic content. 2, according to the role of arsenic and other elements and genes, reduce the formation of arsenic arsenic, hinder the absorption of arsenic, increase its excretion process. Selenium: It has been reported that the addition of ascorbic acid and high protein in feeds can promote the metabolism of selenium in animals. Fluoride: For feeds with high fluoride content, the proportion of phosphate and bone meal in the diet should be limited based on the extent of their fluoride content. Control of Nitrite in Toxic and Harmful Compounds in Feed 1. Pay attention to the preparation, feeding and storage of green feed. Leafy green feed should be fresh and fed. If it is to be cooked, it should be cooked quickly and it should be fed after cold. Do not boil over low heat. The feed storage site should be dry, cool and ventilated, and should be spread out in thin layers, not long-term stacking. If it has rotted, feeding should be strictly prohibited. 2. When ruminants feed green feeds with high levels of nitrates, they must be fed a diet rich in sugar, which can reduce the absorption of nitrite. Cyanide uses a cyanogenic glycogen diet based on changes in the content of cyanogenic glycosides in feed and animal sensitivity. 1. Grasp the changing rules of toxic components in the growing period of plants, and make reasonable use of them. For example, sorghum, corn stems and leaves when young and regeneration seedlings can not be used, should be used when heading, and prepared into a silage or hay after feeding. 2. For cyanogenic materials used in cassava, flaxseed, etc., in conjunction with diets, the use limits of these materials should be limited based on the content of cyanogenic guanidine and the maximum allowable amount of animals. 3, feed cyanide soluble in water, the enzyme or dilute acid hydrolysis of hydrogen cyanide, the boiling point is only 26 Â°C, heating volatile. Therefore, detoxification treatment generally uses water soaking and heating distillation. Grinding and fermentation also have an effect on HCN removal. 4. Use additives to improve the detoxification function of animals. After the hydrogen cyanide acid is absorbed, the cyanide ion and the thiosulfate in the body are catalyzed by rhodanese to form a low-toxicity thiocyanate, which is excreted in the urine. Therefore, adding a small amount of thiosulfate to a cyanogenic diet can promote metabolism and reduce residuals in the body. Oxalic acid and oxalate 1. Do not feed early or young, fresh plants and feed mature grasses. 2. Horses are less fed or not fed pasture animals with high oxalate content. Histamine histamine is mainly found in animal feed, and histamine is more likely to be produced by microbial infestation feeds. Because histamine is stable, the key to controlling histamine in feed is to prevent the production of histamine. 1. Prior to the production of animal feed, such as meat bone or fishmeal, the control of fresh raw materials should be strengthened, because this is the most likely link to increase histamine in the feed. Therefore, fresh fish should be processed and processed as soon as possible, and there should be low-temperature conditions during storage. 2. For animal feeds, the water content should not exceed 12% to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Control of Characteristic Pests in Feeds Toxic Ingredients in Cottonseed Cake Control The substances that are toxic to animals in cottonseed cakes are gossypol, gossypol violet, gossypol pigment and cotton green pigment. Among them, the content of gossypol is relatively high, and the toxicity is large. Other toxic pigments are all derivatives of gossypol. 1, control the amount of addition: According to the content of free gossypol in the cottonseed cake and feeding the object, control the amount of cotton seed cake in the mix. 2, cotton seed cake to poison. The toxic components in the rapeseed cake control The toxins in the rapeseed cake are mainly sulphur gluconate and its degradation products such as iso-sulphate, oxazolidinone, cyanide, sinapine, phytic acid and tannin. 1, according to the content of toxin in rapeseed meal and the sensitivity of feeding objects and products, control the amount of rapeseed meal in compound feed. 2. Pretreatment of decoction of rapeseed meal: After the rapeseed is crushed and treated with hot water, the cellulose and lipoprotein suspensions are separated by density measurement sieve, and then lipoprotein precipitate and waste liquid are separated by alkalization centrifugation. (Sickle mustard goes into waste). Control of Harmful Components in Soybean Cake The soybean cake contains toxins such as trypsin inhibitor, saponin, lipoxygenase and anti-vitamins. The main methods of control are: to change the stew of soybeans and their cakes, that is, when soybeans are used as feed, they must be baked or puffed. Soybean cakes produced by hot-pressing or pre-pressing extraction can be used directly and extracted. Production should pay attention to steaming and baking process. Soy cakes produced by cold-pressing or simple leaching should be heat-treated. Castor bean cakes mainly include ricin, marifine, allergen and hemagglutinin. Among them, the former two are rich in content, toxic and residual. 1, detoxification steam method. 2. Application of detoxified castor cake For many reasons, most detoxified caster cakes currently contain some toxins. Equine animals, geese, rabbits, and chickens are sensitive to ricinine and are easily left in the body, so try not to feed them. Ricinine and allergen may be transferred to cow's milk, affecting consumption, so no castor cake is used in dairy diets. The amount of castor cake in other animal diets should generally be limited to 20% or less. The main toxic component in the woodgrass raft is dicoumarin. 1, reduce the content of coumarin. 2, control the moisture and temperature in the process, try not to make it moldy. 3, for serious moldy, high coumarin content of grass must be according to the ratio of 1:8.
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