Turbot healthy aquaculture technology

Reinhardituship poglosso is native to Britain, France and other European countries. It inhabits the northern Atlantic Ocean and is a large-scale benthic fish. In 1992, China imported turbot for artificial breeding, due to a short history of breeding. The research work in this area has yet to be in-depth. The knowledge and research work on disease prevention and control is in the process of exploration and accumulation. Common knowledge of disease prevention and control is often ignored by farmers. Turbot has high nutritional value and is popular with consumers. The development prospects are extremely promising. The following is a summary of the basic techniques, conditions, and prevention and control of major diseases of turbot culture. 1. Seedlings: The body length of the turbot seedlings should be more than 5 cm. The fish body should have normal color, vitality, and no disease or deformity. Second, the water temperature: turbot is a cold water fish, breeding suitable water temperature requirements between 10 °C ~ 20 °C, 14 °C ~ 17 °C water temperature for the rapid growth phase. 3. Salinity: The suitable salinity for turbot culture is between 20 ‰ and 32 ,, and 25 ‰ ‰ 30 ‰ is more appropriate. Fourth, water quality: turbot breeding requirements of water quality without pollution, extraction of underground seawater can be directly used in aquaculture ponds, use of seawater to be filtered and sterilized. V. Water consumption: According to the culture experience of turbot, it is better to use water culture. The amount of water changed every day is at least 5 cycles. If the amount of water is sufficient, it can be doubled. Sixth, the growth rate: turbot growth speed, under normal circumstances from the body length of 5 cm seedlings into the pond calculation, 7 months that is more than 200 days can be grown to a weight of about 500 grams per tail, reaching the product specifications. Seven, bait: The main bait of turbot is the soft pellets made of fresh fish and fish meal, various vitamins and special powdered feed. The finer the bait, the better the growth effect. Eight, bait coefficient: turbot habits cluster undercover, usually rarely swimming, food intake is small, the bait coefficient is between 1:1 to 1:1.5. Feeding amount on day nine and daily: The body weight is 200 grams or less within 3 days or 4 times per day, and the body weight above 200 grams is 2 times or 3 times per day, and the body weight is between 300 grams and 400 grams per day and 2 times per day. It is 1.5% to 2% of fish weight. Ten, advocate shed raising. Building greenhouses to raise turbot, less investment, good results, winter can be insulated, shade in summer, so that the temperature inside the shed cool, suitable for turbot growth. Eleventh, clear pool: turbot culture requires clean and non-polluting water quality, the pool should be cleaned once in 2 days to prevent the bait and fecal material residues cause bacteria to multiply. 12. Medicinal bath: In order to prevent hidden diseases, it is required that the cultured fish should be given a medicinal bath every 10 days to 12 days. The formaldehyde concentration should be 1:6000 to 1:5000, and soaked for 1.5 to 2 hours. XIII. Inflation: The aquaculture tank should be continuously inflated. A gas stone can be used for every 3 to 4 square meters, especially during the medicine bath. XIV. Major diseases and prevention and control: 1. Vibriosis: This is a common bacterial disease of turbot. Symptoms include fin congestion, ecchymosis on the surface, bleeding from skin and muscle tissue, or inflammation of the intestine. Feeding Haizhen Bao spices for prevention and control, the proportion of 4 kg/ton in the compound feed bait. 2. Trichodinosis: It is a common parasitic protozoan parasitized on the axilla and the body surface. It can be sterilized with a bactericidal bath. 3. Scrub mycorrhizal disease: a common parasitic disease, due to the benthic algae benthic colony life, its rough skin to increase the chance of infection by small melon insects. At the same time, large breeding density, excessive feeding, excessive eutrophication, etc., can cause the disease to occur. This disease usually occurs in the summer and is mainly prevention. It increases water quality, improves water quality, strengthens feed nutrition, and strengthens broodstock constitution. Is the key to prevent this disease, it is recommended to use the immune enhancer Hai Zhen Bao, adding a ratio of 3 kg per ton of compound feed, the effect is significant; also recommended that the use of fish must be soaked control, enhance broodstock constitution, the concentration of 2ppm. 4. Bacterial sepsis: The pathogen is caused by aerobic bacteria, or mixed infections of various bacteria (some diseased fish have parasites on the surface and in the sacral area). Symptoms are complex and are caused by a variety of causes of a fulminant disease caused by a secondary bacterial infection. Clinical manifestations: Ingestion decreased, activity decreased, body color became darker, abdominal distension occurred, hemorrhage occurred at the base of each fin, cleft palate, and the diseased fish moved slowly in the water; anatomical examination showed that the liver became Yellow and white. The heart and spleen are dark red; the stomach has no food, the intestine has water, the bowel wall is thin and transparent, the heart, liver and spleen cells are heavily necrotic, the lids are sag, and the whitish silk is anemia, and some anal micro Red, massive necrosis, and pigmentation. Cause: Nutritional imbalance. The normal growth of fish and disease-fighting immune function require various nutrients for protection. The lack of or excess of a certain substance will cause the imbalance of related functional disorders, which leads to the decline of immunity is the primary intrinsic factor in inducing the disease. Reasons for water quality and blind drug use: In high-density culture, feed is often over-fed, and the amount of remnants and excretions increases, often resulting in a dramatic increase in the amount of harmful substances in the water, plus a large amount of various drugs used to make pathogenic substances in water bodies. Residues are serious, forming a vicious cycle of prevention and control-drug-residue-onset-reuse, which seriously pollutes water quality, causes ecological imbalances, and causes outbreaks of fish diseases. 5. Streptococcus disease: diseased fish eyeballs, eye congestion, redness or severe bleeding inside the lid cover. Preventive method: It is recommended to add 2 kg of sea treasures per ton of full-price compound feed, which has a good effect on prevention and control of streptococcal disease. 6. Pseudomonas disease: Hemorrhage of diseased fish gills, rotted fins, and acne or ulcers with pus and blood on the surface of the disease. It is prone to develop from early summer to autumn. Control methods: 1 maintain moderate breeding density; 2 mix with sea treasure and feed, add a ratio of 2 ~ 3 kg / ton 7. Edwards disease: There is a large area of ​​abdomen and both sides of the diseased fish. Absorption occurs on the abdomen of the abdomen. The lesion emits a strong odor due to tissue rot. Abdominal cavity is severely watery and the juvenile period is heavier. Control methods: It can be treated with norfloxacin and other antibacterial drugs, but it is easy to produce drug resistance; it is recommended to use Chinese Herbal Medicines for better control effect. 8. Sliding off bacterial diseases: red, bleeding in the head, trunk, and fins of diseased fish causes skin ulcers or caudal rot in the late stages of disease. Low water temperature prone to this disease. Control methods: 1 compound New Prominence; 2 per kilogram of fish every day with fish must be spices, continuous feeding. Prevention and control experience: 1 adhere to the principle of prevention as the main; 2 early detection, early treatment, take preventive measures.

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