Beef cattle fattening comprehensive supporting technology

The comprehensive supporting technology of beef cattle fattening vigorously develops and utilizes resources such as crop straws and agricultural and sideline products, focusing on the comprehensive supporting technologies of “good breed, good housing, good material, good medicine, and good law” to rapidly fatten the livestock, thus improving the comprehensive benefits of raising beef cattle. The economies of scale will accelerate the development of beef cattle industry in the direction of scale, standardization, and profitability.
Standardization of cowshed construction Barn construction Barn construction should be reasonable in structure, durable, and face southwards to ensure cool in winter and cool in summer. At present, there are semi-enclosed single-row and double-row cowsheds. The width of the cowshed is 1.5 meters. The cement trough is built along the way. The inner edge of the trough is 0.6 meters high, the outer edge is 0.8 meters high, and the trough is 0.45 meters wide. Each cow has a bed width of 1.3 meters and a length of 3.1 meters. , 0.1 meter deep defecation ditch. The cowshed is kept open in winter to cover plastic shed insulation to ensure that the minimum temperature in the house is controlled at 5 degrees or more. The humidity and harmful gases in the house are regulated through the ventilation window. The relative humidity does not exceed 80%, and the concentration of harmful gases such as ammonia gas cannot exceed 200. Ml/m3.
Breeding breeds are preferred for hybrid cattle, such as Simmental hybrid cattle, Limousin hybrid cattle, Charolais hybrid cattle, German yellow cattle, and Luxi cattle. As the hybrid beef cattle have obvious advantages, fast growth, resistance to crude feeding, strong disease resistance, high meat production performance, and good feed compensation, the fattening effect is good. The fattening cattle generally choose healthy and disease-free, 4-8 months old hybrid beef cattle.
The epidemic prevention and quarantine conducted a comprehensive quarantine on the newly introduced cattle, and it is strictly forbidden to purchase cattle from infectious diseases.
Sterilization of bovine body was performed once per head with 0.3% peroxy acetic acid disinfectant, and the bovine body was subjected to 1 rubbish or 2% trichlorfon within 3 days with 0.25% triterpenoid milking agent. The solution is sprayed with bovine body in order to prevent the occurrence of body surface parasitic disease. The insect repellent is put into the pen for 7 days, and is abolished by oral administration of 10 ml of albendazole per kilogram of body weight once or peristalsis with 5-7 mg of body weight per kilogram of body weight. Parasites, if ectoparasites are also treated promptly.
7-8 days after the approach of the stomach, use the stomach to dispose of all stomachs on the cows, weigh 250 kg of cattle, irrigated 250 g, weigh 250 kg or more of 500 g per head, and recover with the bovine body condition. And adapt to the environment, gradually add concentrate feed.
Disinfection of the shed Before the cattle go into the house, we must periodically use quicklime water or Laizher to disinfect the cowshed and set a disinfection pool at the entrance to prevent germs from being carried.
Epidemic prevention and treatment often observe changes in the body condition of cattle, abnormal symptomatic treatment should be timely, and regular immunization with foot-and-mouth disease vaccines and Brucella vaccines.
Ammoniated fodder for feed preparation The crop straw is chopped into 5-8 cm long, urea is used as the ammonia source, and the weight of urea in the straw is dissolved in water to make a 100-500 g/l urea solution. The content of straw per 100 kg is 50%, fully stirred and filled with cement in the cement pool. The plastic film is sealed on top and pressed tightly around it. It takes 15-20 days in summer, 30 days in spring, and 50-60 days in winter. Can be ammoniated, ammoniated straw feed should be put ammonia for 1 day before use, and then feed, the ammoniated straw has a soft texture, odor, crude protein content can be increased 1-2 times, because With increased food intake and digestibility, the energy conversion rate can be increased by 10% to 15%. Feeding methods are: Start feeding with other straw forage, and after being adapted, all can be fed with ammoniated straw.
The forage of micro-storage micro-storage is straw and green feed after harvesting of food crops. Both dry straw and green straw have micro-environment that can be made by straw-fermented live dried bacteria. The straw is split into 5-8 cm long, and the former revive strain is produced. Now the used 1000 gram of dry stem bacteria is 3 grams per bag, which can handle 1 ton of dry straw or 2 ton of green straw, and the required temperature for micro-feed production. At least 5 degrees, the general feed micro-storage can be fed after 20-30 days. The micro-storage color is micro-lame green, with a mellow fruit taste, soft texture, the amount should be gradually increased at the beginning of feeding, and it can reach the full amount after 7 days. Generally, fattening cattle can eat 10-15 kg per head per day. Individual small 5-8 kg silage silage materials are mainly corn straw, and spike silage is harvested at the ear to reach the milk ripening stage. Corn straw is silage in the ear of corn. When the stems and leaves are still green, they will be harvested. When the silage is harvested, the silage material will be as short as 2-3 centimeters long. The first 10-15 centimeters of wheatgrass will be laid on the bottom of the silo, and the silage materials will be layered and filled with 15-30 centimeters. Thickness must be compacted once, in particular to tighten the edges and corners, the relative humidity of silage The best degree is from 65% to 75%. It is advisable to squeeze the finger and chop the raw material by hand so as not to drip. After filling 30-40 centimeters from the upper edge of the cellar, cover it 15-30 centimeters. The thick straw is compacted, sealed with plastic sheeting, and then pressed on top with a layer of wet soil. If there is sinking or cracking, it should be repaired in time, and dug wells around.
The silage can be opened for 30 days after filling, and the surface is evenly filled. Afterwards, the plastic film is used to cover it in time to prevent the secondary alcohol from being exposed due to the material surface. The high-quality silage is a green or yellow-green color and acid. Aroma, texture, texture, stems and leaves remain the same, poor quality, mostly brown, dark green or black, soft texture, loss of the structure of the original stems and leaves, sticky, smelly, this silage can not feed cattle, with high-quality silage When the feed is fed to cattle, the amount of feed should be from less to more, and be fed with concentrate feed or other customary feed. The amount of feed should not exceed 1/2 of the total diet, and there should be a daily feed of 8-12 kg of beef on each head. It is advisable to calf 3-4 kg.
The wine trough and beet slag fresh wine trough are packed in the concrete pool and compacted, covered with a plastic shed film, the daily feed amount per cow is no more than 8 kg, and the summer trough should be air-dried 1-2
Feeding after hours, but storage time should not be too long to prevent mildew and spoilage. When fed with other feeds, fresh fresh beet pulp should be stored in the pool, the dosage should be close to that of the wine trough, and the preparation of refined feed should be prevented Mainly corn, bran, rapeseed cake, salt, bone meal, mainly based on feed conditions, its standard crude protein 100-130 grams, energy and protein ratio of 80:20, calcium 11-12 grams, phosphorus 8 - 9g, for reference there are two kinds of matching owners, No. 1 concentrate feed: corn 15%, rapeseed cake 20%, bran 10%, bone meal 1%, salt 1%, No. 2 concentrate feed: corn 74%, bran 20% of skin, 3% of bone
Breeding and preparedness According to the raw material of cattle, prepare 6 kg of prepared feed per day, prepare 2.4% kg of concentrate, and add 0.5% sodium bicarbonate as the basis of the weight of refined feed to increase sperm concentration. The utilization rate of feedstuffs, rough feeds are prepared twice a day, concentrates 2 times, and the weight ratio of concentrates and roughages is appropriate to dry matter: 1-4.
Feed every morning at 8 o'clock in the morning, feed at 4 o'clock in the afternoon, feed in the early morning and late in the fine feed, feed in the rough and fine feed and feed water in the morning and evening for about 1 hour, put the clean water in the sink and allow it to freely drink water. To prevent drinking water with ice in winter, the requirement must not be less than 0 degrees, so as to minimize the consumption of cold energy by the cattle body.
Beef fattening system Beef cattle fattening adopts the following two kinds of fattening systems. First, the calf's fattening system. The calf's general weaning time is 3 months. Weaning is not suitable for fast fattening in small and medium-sized, but suitable feeding, grazing and feeding should be strengthened. Combine to promote growth and development. Herein concentrate feed is about 30%, strengthen rearing after 7 months of age, strength is strong for 4-6 months, weight is about 700 kg when selling or slaughtering, and second is shelf cattle fattening system, 8 - The shelf-stranded cattle of 10 months or so are used for fattening. The fattening should be done quickly. There are 3 periods before, during and after the fattening. The early stage is the acclimation period. During this period, the amount of the diet should be moderate, easy to digest, and the middle period should be a period of weight gain. In the later stage of the improvement period, the ratio of refined to roughage is 3:7, and the daily weight gain during the whole fattening period is more than 2.5 kg, and within 3-4 months it can be more than 700 kg. It can be sold or slaughtered.

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