Pig prices are low and pollution is serious: how do pig farmers respond?
Beijing Huaxia Kangyuan Technology Co., Ltd.
First, the current price of pig
Since March, pork prices have begun to decline. Taking leg flesh as an example, the price has dropped from 22-24 yuan/kg before the Spring Festival to the current 14-16 yuan/kg, and the prices of pork and pork ribs have also fallen from the market. According to the survey, the market price of meat dropped by about 20%. In addition to pork, other pig products also fell continuously. Data from the Ministry of Agriculture showed that in March, the national average live pig price was 11.63 yuan/kg, a decrease of 8.4% from the previous month. The prices of live pigs in all provinces have generally declined, with Tianjin, Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Anhui, Hubei and Chongqing dropping by more than 10%. Since the peak of consumption during the Spring Festival, the live pig price has dropped continuously for 2 months, with a cumulative decrease of 13.3%. At the same time, the average price of China's piglets in March was 19.75 yuan/kg, down 1.8% month-on-month, and it ended the slight increase in two months. At present, the prices of piglets in 70% of the provinces in the country have fallen. The average price of piglets in Beijing, Anhui and Qinghai has dropped by more than 10%, and the price of piglets in Tianjin, Hebei, Liaoning, Heilongjiang, Shanghai and Henan has dropped by more than 5.0%.
Compared with the same period in 2008, the current prices of live pigs, pork, and piglets decreased by 30.9%, 24.8%, and 44.1%, respectively. â€œIt's better to eat meat than to eat!â€ Although this is just a ridiculous word, it shows the current status of pork prices falling and vegetable prices high.
At present, the current price of pigs and grains is basically maintained at 6.5:1, and people in the industry predict that the price of pigs has not yet reached the bottom. It is expected that the lowest purchase price of live pigs in August may fall to more than 4 yuan and the farmers face a decline in profits and even losses. The risk, coupled with the current decline in corn and feed prices, can be said to have a bad market prospect. The enthusiasm of fish farmers has been greatly reduced, and the number of stocks has dropped drastically. For example, the number of three households with annual sales of 1000 heads in Hubei Yicheng basically becomes zero. Approximately 350 heads of medium-sized households are slaughtered in the year, and the largest population is less than 60%.
The current efficiency of raising pigs is very low, even at a loss. How can the pig breeding process be carried out in a severe market?
Second, the status of aquaculture pollution and the main hazards
1. Status of aquaculture pollution
With the improvement of peopleâ€™s living standards, peopleâ€™s consumption of animal food such as meat, eggs, and milk is further increased, which in turn promotes the development of animal husbandry. The livestock and poultry husbandry volume and stocking density have increased dramatically, especially in intensive large-scale livestock and poultry farms in the outskirts of large cities. Livestock and poultry manure has no way out, long-term accumulation or random discharge leads to bad odors in the air, breeding of mosquitoes and flies, and pollution of the surrounding water environment. Therefore, it becomes an important source of pollution for the environment. The environmental pollution caused by animal husbandry and aquaculture not only affects the sustainable development of animal husbandry, but also affects people's quality of life and even endangers their health. This has become a social issue.
The annual discharge of livestock and poultry excrement in China is about 2.5 billion tons, which exceeds the sum of the national industrial waste residue and urban household waste discharge, and has caused serious pollution to the surrounding environment. With the rapid development of the pig-breeding industry, large-scale, intensive pig farms and farming communities continue to increase, and the pollution caused by swine pigs has increased dramatically.
The survey showed that the chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, total P, total N annual pollution load of livestock manure in the Huangpu River Basin were 68,600 t, 22,200 t, 34,100 t, and 0.31 million t, respectively, accounting for about Jiang's total pollutant load is 36%. The pollution of livestock and poultry excreta in other cities is equally serious. In 1996, the chemical oxygen demand in the livestock manure wastewater in Guangzhou accounted for 67% of the total chemical oxygen demand in the city's wastewater. In Beijing in the early 1990s, the livestock and poultry husbandry industry discharged Biochemical oxygen demand is equivalent to 2 times the total biochemical oxygen demand of industrial and domestic sewage. The survey shows that livestock and poultry excrement in China has exceeded the overall land load alert, reflecting a certain degree of environmental stress and relatively severe environmental pressure.
2. Major hazards of aquaculture to environmental pollution
Livestock and poultry urine is the most numerous and most harmful source of livestock waste. The amount and type of pollutants contained therein are particularly numerous, and mainly include: excreta itself, decomposed fecal matter, and its own malodorous components.
2.1 Livestock waste contains a large number of pathogenic microorganisms, parasite eggs, and breeding mosquitoes and flies, which will increase the number of pathogenic species in the environment, multiply pathogens and parasites, and cause the spread of human and animal infectious diseases, especially in livestock and poultry. Diseases have led to the outbreak and have caused catastrophic damage to humans and animals.
2.2 is the decomposition of urine under anaerobic conditions to produce a large number of more than 200 kinds of organic odor substances such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, alcohol, and methane, and pollute the environment through the atmosphere, water and soil. Produces odor, stimulates human and animal respiratory tracts, causes respiratory diseases and leads to decreased productivity of livestock and poultry.
2.3 Unprocessed sewage from livestock and poultry excreta and livestock and poultry farms contains large amounts of pollutants and nitrogen and phosphorus compounds, especially in the case of amino acids in the feed that are not balanced and the available nutrients are low. It is estimated that a 500-head farm will discharge at least 1,500 tons of sewage around the farm every year, including about 5.35 tons of nitrogen and 1.55 tons of phosphorus. After these nitrogen and phosphorus enter the soil, they will be converted into nitrate and phosphate. Too high contents will cause the land to lose its production value, cause surface water and groundwater pollution, cause the total number of nitrate-nitrogen and bacteria in the water to exceed the standard, contaminate drinking water, soil and crops, spread zoonoses and livestock and poultry infectious diseases.
In 2000, the State Environmental Protection Agency issued the â€œDrainage Standards for Livestock and Poultry Breeding Industryâ€ and the â€œAdministrative Measures for the Pollution Prevention and Control of Livestock and Poultry Farms.â€ However, in recent years, due to the huge scale of breeding, breeding methods and distribution areas of livestock and poultry husbandry in China, As a result of the changes, the environmental pollution problems it brings together have shown a trend of increasing total volumes, intensifying degrees, and expanding the scope. As a result, the government has also taken some measures. In 2001, it issued the â€œPig Restrictionsâ€ and the â€œBraise Ordersâ€. The city of Shenzhen banned pig raising in 2009.
After the Spring Festival this year, Fujian Province also issued a â€œLimiting Orderâ€ for the pig raising industry in the Jiulongjiang River Basin, the second largest river system in the province. All farms within one kilometer of the main stream and within 500 meters of both sides of the tributary were demolished. It is prohibited on both sides of the main stream, 5 kilometers, on both sides of the tributary. Within one kilometer of new and expanded farms, farms outside the banned area will have to meet standard discharge, otherwise they will all be closed. Hogs in tens of thousands of pig farmers in Longyan and Zhangzhou in Fujian Province will be demolished and hundreds of thousands of pigs will be cleared. On the yuan. All this shows that the aquaculture pollution has been very serious, how to reduce the pollution to the scope of the qualified, how can pig breeding benefit and environmental protection? Where is the way out?
Third, ecological solutions
Since the waste produced from swine breeding has become a serious source of pollution, we must follow the principle of â€œreduction, recycling, harmlessness, and ecologicalizationâ€, carry out harmless treatment and ecological recycling, and adopt a green and healthy breeding system. In order to achieve a harmonious and healthy development of the pig-raising industry and the ecological environment, the proposal of zero-emission of pollution on the large-scale pig farms is the limit of pollution reduction and is also our goal.
The pig industry pollution mainly adopts two kinds of technical models. First, it promotes â€œzero-emissionâ€ farming techniques. For example, Jinbao ecological fermentation bed cultivation eliminates excrement, no-rinse, and cleanliness. Five years of practice has proved to be very economically beneficial. Eco-efficiency; The first is to adopt a three-dimensional ecological breeding mode, but the three-dimensional ecological farming mode such as â€œPig-Marsh-Fruit-Fishâ€ requires large-scale farming, high environmental requirements, and high investment costs, leading to limitations.
In addition, the farmers need to make money, only from the reduction of investment in breeding costs and increase the efficiency of breeding, in the current market, as much as possible to spend less and make more money, ecological fermentation bed breeding can save energy, materials, water, medical expenses , save manpower, on the other hand through the fermentation bed to raise the pig, because the treatment is good, slaughtered pork meat is good, crisp, fresh and delicious, but also to sell a good price.
In fact, the State Council and local livestock husbandry bureaus, environmental protection bureaus, and agricultural bureaus have also vigorously supported and promoted the cultivation of ecological fermentation beds. The Shandong Provincial Bureau of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary issued the â€œOpinions on Accelerating the Promotion of Natural Pig Raising Lawâ€ in September 2008. (Lu Mu Department of Animal Husbandry  No. 14), supporting the ecological breeding mode of the fermentation bed, local governments also have a subsidy of 50-100 yuan per square, currently the Bureau of Animal Husbandry in Henan Hebi has also taken six measures to promote ecological protection The new pig-raising mode strives to reach an area of â€‹â€‹500,000 square meters or more in the city's fermentation beds by 2011. The eco-ring maintenance pig farm will produce 1 million live pigs every year. It will be popularized in one year, popularized in two years, and improved in three years. Bio-ring maintenance pig base target.
In Funan County, Shandong Province, a leading group for the promotion of bio-promoting pigs was also established, which was headed by the deputy head of the county and headed by the relevant departments of animal husbandry, finance, and land, and the main leaders were responsible for personally grasping and in charge of the leadership. Contact Baofu and business technicians to enter the home to guide and practically strengthen the organization and coordination of the promotion of biological ring maintenance pig technology. The promotion of biological ring maintenance pig technology was included in the important content of rural economic assessment, and the township and township government issued task indicators, implemented monthly dispatch, quarterly summary, and half year notification system, with assessment as the starting point, and accelerated the pace of bio-ring maintenance pig technology promotion. National Biological Ring Maintenance Pig Demonstration Base County.
It can be said that the ecological fermentation bed has been a very good model to solve the pollution problem and improve the aquaculture efficiency. With the promotion of various regions, its prospects will be very promising.
Fourth, the characteristics and efficacy of fermentation beds
Ecological fermentation bed aquaculture technology refers to an ecological farming model that utilizes the principles of microbiology, ecology, and fermentation engineering, and uses active functional microbes as the â€œconversion centerâ€ of material energy. The core of this technology lies in the long-term, continuous and stable conversion of animal waste and urine waste into useful substances and energy through the use of a powerful and beneficial functional microbial composite flora, and at the same time achieving pollution-free, zero-emissions that completely degrades the excreta of pigs and other animals. The goal is to be the most up-to-date and environmentally-friendly breeding model in the world today. Europe, the United States, Japan, and South Korea started to be applied very early. Since the 1990s, experts and professors from various countries have begun systematic research and practice of pig breeding on the fermentation bed, and gradually formed a relatively complete technical standard. China has begun to apply this technology in recent years. In the aquaculture industry and achieved remarkable results.
For example, as long as a 50-cm underground or ground litter pit is set in the Jinbao Ecological Fertilizer, paddy straw or rice husks and other agricultural and sideline products are filled, pig manure and urine are directly discharged on the litter, and a powerful strain of the golden baby is performed. The start, fermentation and decomposition of the pigs restored the eating habits of the pigs, and some of the bacterial proteins were eaten by the pigs. The entire breeding process achieved zero-emission, odor-free, and non-polluting effects.
So the ecological fermentation bed has the following effects:
1. Deodorizing and environment-friendly microorganisms Decompose the excreta within 2-3 days (and complete it within a few hours), the pigsty becomes clean, the environment is improved, and the environment is not fouled, and the pollution is minimized and discharged on the spot. .
2. The surface temperature of energy-saving grain-fermentation bed is kept at 20 degrees for many years, so that heating heating costs can be saved in winter (this point is for nursery pigs, as well as areas in northern regions and below 15 degrees Celsius, where the duration of lower temperatures exceeds one month or more. , can be said to save a lot of money, save money is to make money), microbes to the waste as a nutrient source bacteria protein, is a very good pig food, this is the so-called pig not only staple food, There are snacks to eat, such as the goldfish fermentation bed can save an average of 100 pounds of feed per pig.
3. Water-saving laborers use fermentation bed breeding to avoid excrement-free flushing. In addition to the normal drinking water of pigs, water consumption can be reduced by 75%-90%, labor saving can be reduced by 30%-50%, and it can be completed in a few hours every day. Days or even days live.
4, anti-disease promote long fermentation There are a large number of beneficial microorganisms and fermentation and growth promoting factors, pigs eat to improve intestinal health, increase resistance to disease, in addition to the traditional cultivation, the cement floor is hard, often flush, The growth of the pigs is very influential, the environment is improved, and the treatment is improved. Therefore, the pigs are not susceptible to disease and gain weight. The average weight gain per pig is 10-15 kg.
5. Increased economic efficiency Eco-fermentation bed breeding Water, electricity, provincial labor costs, provincial feed costs, provincial drug fees, save a lot of costs, while raising the quality of pork is also good to sell a good price, so improved Economic benefits. Since there are so many benefits, how do you make a fermentation bed?
Fifth, the production and maintenance of fermentation beds
1, the structure requirements of the fermentation bed
The direction of the pigsty is east-west and south-facing. It can be made into a greenhouse or single-row and double-row structure according to local conditions.
For the needs of ventilation, the pigsty is best equipped with â€œfour windows completeâ€ (â€œfour windowsâ€ ie skylights, underground windows, common windows and windscreens). The pens are separated by fences to prevent bad odor blockage in dead corners. , Stay and strengthen the air mobility.
The area can not be too large or too small. For example, the recommended area of â€‹â€‹the Jinpo fermentation bed is 20-45 square meters, which can effectively prevent or reduce the â€œbad bedsâ€, â€œblisters bedsâ€ and â€œmud bedsâ€. The appearance of the phenomenon.
According to the local terrain, underground and semi-underground are made underground to prevent water leakage.
2, the production of fermentation beds
Take Jinbao fermentation bed production as an example here, the unique "dry spread" and dumb type operation of the Jinbao fermentation bed. As long as "one dose and one material" and "five layers of four-layer fungicide" are very simple and convenient.
For example, to make a 20 square fermented bed, 1 dilution. First dilute 2 kg of gold treasure compound (5:1 relationship) with 10 kg of rice bran or corn flour, flour, bran, etc., and divide into 4 parts; 2 then prepare 10 squares of about 2 tons of dry sawdust (the total thickness is not (below 50cm) divided into 5 parts; 3 first spread a layer of 10cm sawdust, then spread a layer of fungus, a total of 5 layers of sawdust four fungi; 4 pigs into the bed after completion of the shop, remember not to add water, the density of the pig More than 1.2-1.5 square meters per head, should not be small should be appropriate, the piglets reduce the appropriate points, two to three days began to start fermentation, decomposition of feces. The ginba dry-type fermentation bed is very simple and does not need to be fermented before adding water.
3, maintenance of the fermentation bed
The operation of the ecological fermentation bed is very much related to maintenance. The maintenance is directly related to the function and life of the fermentation bed. For example, the goldfish fermentation bed is well maintained without cleaning. How to maintain it?
3.1 Humidity The density of excrement, urine, humidity, and central layer should be controlled below 65%. The simple way to judge is: grab a handful of material by hand, and see that the water does not drip in the finger-tap is an appropriate standard, and the watermark is not visible. Too dry, dripping water too wet. Too much or too little moisture is not conducive to fermentation: too little water, slow fermentation of microorganisms. Too much water increases the temperature slowly, and the ventilation is poor. The formation of a local anaerobic environment promotes the work of spoilage bacteria and produces odors, and even a dead bed phenomenon. A slot must be made below the drinker to drain the excess water. In general, the bed surface humidity is about 20-30% and the middle layer is 50-65%.
Therefore, in the routine maintenance of the fermentation bed, the humidity in the fermentation bed is often observed and adjusted in time. The thirst on the bed is slightly sprayed with water, and the bed can be moistened with some dry litter, pushing the litter to promote mixing with other places, or pulling Dry out and go to bed.
3.2 Turning regularly, the depth is 20-30 cm. The frequency needs to be one or two times a week as required. Wet and wet are equal.
3.3 Ventilation Maintain good ventilation conditions. The sunroof discharges ammonia gas, nitrogen dioxide in the ground window, normal window drainage vapor, and the induced draft fan window enhances air flow during hot weather. When the temperature is high at noon, the sunroof is opened and covered at night. According to time, season and climate, reasonable ventilation measures should be taken to maintain the air requirement of the fermentation bed and be warm in winter and cool in summer.
3.4 After a long time, according to the subsidence of litter to add a certain amount of litter and bacteria, so that the litter layer is maintained at the appropriate thickness, so that the core fermentation layer, protective layer, buffer layer has its own space.
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