Photochemical and photocatalytic oxidation methods are currently an advanced oxidation technology. The so-called photocatalytic reaction is a chemical reaction carried out under the action of light. The photochemical reaction requires the molecule to absorb electromagnetic radiation of a specific wavelength, which is stimulated to generate an excited state of the molecule, and then a chemical reaction occurs to form a new substance, or becomes an intermediate chemical product that initiates a thermal reaction. The activation energy of photochemical reactions is derived from the energy of photons, and photoelectric conversion and photochemical conversion have been very active research fields in the utilization of solar energy.
Photodegradation usually means that organic matter is gradually oxidized into low molecular intermediates under the action of light to form CO2, H2O and other ions such as NO3-, PO43-, Cl- and the like. Photodegradation of organic matter can be divided into direct photodegradation and indirect photodegradation. The former refers to a chemical reaction that occurs further after the organic molecules absorb light energy. The latter is a reaction in which some substances in the surrounding environment absorb light energy into an excited state and then induce a series of organic pollution. Indirect photodegradation is more important for organic pollutants that are difficult to biodegrade in the environment.
The use of photochemical reactions to degrade contaminants, including catalyst-free and photochemical oxidation processes involving catalysts. The former mostly uses oxygen and hydrogen peroxide as oxidants to oxidize and decompose pollutants under the irradiation of ultraviolet light; the latter is also called photocatalytic oxidation, and can be generally classified into two types: homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. It is more common in homogeneous photocatalytic degradation that Fe2+ or Fe3+ and H2O2 are used as media. Photo-Fenton reaction produces HO to degrade pollutants. Heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation is more common in pollution systems. A certain amount of photosensitive semiconductor material, combined with a certain amount of optical radiation, causes the photosensitive semiconductor to be excited by light to generate electron-hole pairs, and dissolved oxygen, water molecules and the like adsorbed on the semiconductor interact with electron-holes to generate Â· Other highly oxidizing free radicals such as HO, which are all or nearly completely mineralized by the addition, substitution, and electron transfer of contaminants with contaminants.
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