Operational Techniques for Full Artificial Breeding of Portunus trituberculatus

I. Pond conditions (1) The area and depth of the rearing ponds are mainly earthen ponds. The area can be large or small, and the water depth requirement is 1.5 meters or more. When the area of ​​a single pond exceeds 10 mu, it is advisable to separate the big pond with a plastic net to prevent the local density from being excessive due to concentration of water crabs due to changes in water temperature and water quality, resulting in mutual residual food.

(2) The bottom of the tank is slightly inclined from one end of the inlet gate towards the end of the drainage gate for drainage. The sediment should be sandy and muddy, and the bottom of the pool should be open with wave trenches and ridges. There should be hidden objects in the pond (such as waste ceramics, stones, tiles, nets, bamboo, branches, or the amount of shells in waste woven bags, etc.) , As a hiding place for the crab (especially during the shelling period). Note that the used woven bag must be cleaned.

In the muddy ponds, the medium and coarse sands with a thickness of about 10 cm can be partially covered in the bottom of the pool to provide a better survival and growth environment for the crabs.

(3) There is no pollution source around the culture pond and the environment is safe.
(4) Each pod can naturally absorb tides for about 10 days, and a pump can be provided to ensure the supply of aquaculture water sources during a small tide.
(5) Configure an appropriate amount of aeration equipment.

Second, prepare before restocking
1. The dredging and detoxification shall be performed to remove the silt in the pond one month prior to the release of the seedlings. Then use the disinfectant drugs in the table below to remove the predators, fighters, and pathogenic organisms.

Commonly used clear pond disinfecting drugs Drug name Use dose Dosing period lime
350 mg/L to 400 mg/L
7 days bleaching powder (effective chlorine ≥28%)
Seawater 40 mg/L ~ 50 mg/L
5 days freshwater 15 mg/L~20 mg/L
5-day dichloroisocyanurate
5 mg/L ~ 10 mg/L
10 days trichloroisocyanuric acid
4 mg/L to 8 mg/L
10-day tea seed cake seawater 15 mg/l~20 mg/l
7 days fresh water 60 mg/L ~ 90 mg/L
7 days

2. Before the fertilizer is released, 7 days to 10 days, until the toxicity of the disinfected medicine disappears, use a 60-mesh sieve to filter the water into 40 cm to 60 cm, then apply 20 mg/L of nitrogen fertilizer, or ferment the organic fertilizer such as chicken. Dung, etc., in order to cultivate basic food, make the pool water yellow-brown or yellow-green, transparency 30 cm to 35 cm. Or wait for Miaoyuan to put some shellfish, oysters and other shellfish as a polyculture, in order to facilitate the cultivation of water quality, sediment quality control or as a live food.

Third, seed stocking
1. Size and quality of crab seedlings Artificial crab seedlings are selected from 1st to 2nd days after the first day of the clamshell. Necessary specifications, individual robust, strong vitality, no disease, complete body appendages.

2. Crab transportation should adopt the water transport method: a plastic bag with a specification of 0.8m 0.4m, 10kg of water, and straw or fluffy seagrass soaked in seawater and disinfected and washed as hidden objects to prevent bait and sticking Injury, 50 grams to 100 grams of juvenile crabs are placed in each bag, and the bags are filled with oxygen, and the bags are transported to the culture pond within 10 hours.

3. Middle-cultivation and seeding density The phase II to III phase crabs should be cultivated in the middle. When the crabs grow to a length of 3 cm to 4 cm (100 to 200 kg/kg), they are added to the rearing pond. Develop.

The middle cultivation uses an intermediate cultivation pond with a size of 1 mu to 3 mu. It can also be used to cultivate a small piece of water in the middle of Datang. The bottom of the pool is required to drain the pool water for harvesting. It is also necessary to set up concealed objects or to properly sand and cultivate a good color.

The middle cultivation density is 15/m2 to 20/m2, keeping the pool water level 70 cm to 80 cm, the transparence about 30 cm, dissolved oxygen above 5 mg/l, and changing the water volume daily by 20% to 30%. The bait is mainly made of shellfish or small fish and shrimp. After being crushed and fed, it is fed 2 times to 4 times per day. The amount of feeding is 100% to 200% of the body weight of the crab. It is better to eat within 2 hours. At the same time, according to the crab shell, climate, food conditions and other factors to make appropriate adjustments. After 10 days to 15 days of cultivation, when the carapace width reaches 3 cm to 4 cm, it can be cultivated in a rearing pool.

The stocking density should be rationally arranged according to the size of seedlings, the time of seedling release, the size of the pond, the number of concealed objects, the condition of the bait and the quality of the pond water. After general stocking, the stocking densities should be 2000/mu~2500/mu. If the hatchlings of Phase II~III are to be cultivated directly, the stocking density should be 4000/mu~. 6000/mu.

Fourth, develop management
1. Feed Feeding (1) Feed types are best for low value shellfish, followed by low value fresh fish and shrimp. Advocate the use of compound feed to make up for the lack of natural food, requires that the content of crude protein in feeds be more than 35%, and the quality meets the requirements of GB13078 and NY5072.

Shellfish shellfish should be crushed and large fish and shrimp should be chopped before feeding fresh live bait. Note that live bait should be cleaned. When feeding non-shellfish bait, it is advisable to add shell powder to the bait in order to prevent slow growth or difficulty in shelling.

After mating with the crab, the three-ported crab should be fed with high-quality foods (such as silkworms) rich in protein and unsaturated fatty acids to promote female gonad development.

(2) Feeding amount The reference values ​​for feeding amount are as follows:
Body Weight (g) Bait Weight (%)
0.8 or less 100
10-30 50-30
50 12~8
More than 100 8 to 5
According to the water temperature, water quality, weather, feeding conditions, physiological conditions, disease conditions and other factors appropriate to adjust the daily feeding amount.

(3) The frequency of daily feeding is generally 2 feedings per day, 70% of the total amount of feeding in the evening, and 30% of the total feeding in the morning.

(4) Feeding methods should be uniformly fed to the pool in order to reduce the chance of gathering crabs and reduce the number of killing each other. And the crabs that are in the shelling period can be eaten locally, and 3 to 5 bait stations are set for each pond to check the feeding conditions and the amount of remaining baits.

2, water quality management (1) water quality requirements - water temperature growth water temperature range of 12 °C ~ 32 °C
The optimum water temperature range is 20°C~27°C
Water temperature 8°C
Sleeping water temperature 6°C
Dead water temperature 2°C

- Salinity growth salinity range 20‰ to 30‰
The optimum salinity range is 10‰ to 34‰.
- PH 7.8 to 8.5
- Aqua tea brown or yellow-green - transparency 30 cm to 40 cm - dissolved oxygen ≥ 4.0 mg/l - ammonia nitrogen ≤ 0.5 mg/l - hydrogen sulfide ≤ 0.1 mg/l

(2) Water quality control Crab seedlings are stocked with a depth of 40 cm to 60 cm. After the seedlings are released, water is added every 2 days to 3 days. Each day, about 10 cm of water is added. After the pool water is added to 1.5 meters, the water needs to be changed according to the water quality and the water color, and the fertilizer, the probiotics and the water quality improver shall be used in combination to maintain the water quality required for the crab.

In high temperature and strong cold air, the water level in the pond should be raised. Especially during the mating season between August and October, the highest water level should be maintained to ensure the stability of the water environment in order to facilitate the smooth mating of the three-ported crabs. In case of continuous heavy rain, it should be timely. Displace light, inject fresh sea water, keep the salinity of seawater above 15 ,, and prevent seawater salinity from dropping suddenly; in case of red tide, stop changing the water.

If the PH value is too high, the pH can be lowered by applying chelated copper, alkaloid and other drugs; if the PH value is too low, lime should be applied at a rate of 5 mg/L to 15 mg/L every two weeks, which can stabilize the water. Value, but also provide a source of calcium.

In hot seasons, especially in hot weather, because of the corruption and decomposition of the residual baits, feces, and biological carcasses, the crabs can be deprived of oxygen, so the oxygen machine must be turned on for oxygenation.

3, male and female sub-cultivation When the crab body reaches about 100 grams, male and female can be identified, this time should stay in the number of female 1/3 to 1/5 of the male crab and female crab cock, and other male crabs should pick out the stock After mating, male crabs should be caught and sold in time to avoid affecting gonadal development of male crabs or death of males themselves after mating.

4. Disease prevention and control In the aquaculture pond that is deteriorating at the bottom of the pond, due to bacterial infection or other biological parasites, various lesions (such as abnormal black spots, perforations on the shell, etc.) will appear in the shell, ventral limbs, and tendons of the crab. Affect survival rate.

Disease prevention and control should mainly achieve the following:
- Filter aquaculture water to prevent entry of predators;
- Regularly disinfecting water bodies with quicklime, bleach, and chlorine dioxide to improve water quality and improve sediment quality;
- Maintain the stability of the aquaculture water environment and prevent the stress response of the crab.
- Feed high-quality fresh bait, add appropriate disease-preventing drugs to the bait during high temperature, and use drugs according to DB330900/T006-2002 "Regulations for the Use of Aquatic Healthy Aquaculture Products in Zhoushan City" to implement antibacterial and antiviral herbal medicines. Allicin and other baits (according to the instructions for use). Eliminate the use of highly toxic, high-residual fishery medicines.

5. Day-to-day management (1) The patrol ponds will be inspected every morning, evening and evening to observe changes in water quality, swimming crab activities, occurrence of disease, etc., as well as safety conditions of gate dams and other facilities. Two hours after each feeding, the crabs were inspected for food intake and number of baits so that the amount of bait could be adjusted in time.
(2) Water quality measurement The daily measurement of water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, transparency, and regular measurement of salinity, chemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen and other water quality factors.
(3) Measure the growth of the crab body every ten days and measure the length, width and weight of the crab to measure the effect of the breeding.
(4) Breeding records Each breeding pond must establish a culture log, including clear pond, seed source, seed size, stocking quantity, stocking date, water quality regulation, feed source, feed type, feed quantity, disease status , drug types, names of fishery drugs, fishery drug manufacturers, dosage, dosage, method of drug use, frequency of drugs, production and sales.

6. Harvesting (1) Time for catching Male crabs can be harvested in November after stock raising and fattening. The female crabs are mature until late mid-December and the gonads mature. The crabs are bred and listed according to market conditions. To stay before and after the Spring Festival sales, raise the water level or use a plastic greenhouse to maintain the water temperature above 2°C.
(2) The catching method - the flow network catching: In the evening, the discharge network is started, and the network is collected every 2 hours, and it can be captured 4 to 5 times a night.
- Crab traps: Crab cages are placed at night, crab cages are collected every 3 hours, and they are captured 3 times a night.
- Net bag capture: The net bag is fixed at the entrance of the drainage gate and the water is used to release the water, so that the shuttle crab enters the net bag with the water, and part of the crab can be caught.
- Dry pond capture: The pond water will be drained to the lowest place, and the shovel will slowly move along the bottom of the pond. The crab will be picked up and grabbed with a net.

The trapped trichilus crab claws are tied tightly with rubber bands, washed clean with seawater, loaded into baskets, and shipped to market (2 °C to 4 °C air temperature, 24 hours after the crabs have dried up, and the survival rate can reach 90%).

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