It is an important part of dairy cows' feeding management. The dry milk method, the length of the dry period and the feeding during dry milk are all directly related to the development of the fetus and the milk production during the next lactation period. Its significance lies in:
1. Make up for the loss of nutrients in the body caused by cows during dry milk and restore bovine health.
2. Make breast tissue have a new opportunity.
3. Make the fetus fully developed environment.
4. At the same time when the body condition of the cow recovers, sufficient nutrients are stored in the body so as to adapt to the negative nutritional balance occurring in the next lactation period, thereby laying the foundation for the full play of the milk production in the next lactation period. The length of dry milk period, according to practice and a variety of tests prove: dry milk period of 50 to 60 days, the highest milk production in the next parity. In less than 30 days or more than 90 days, the milk production will be affected, and it also shows that if the non-dried cows have dry milk for 60 days, the next milk production will decrease by 25%, and then the next production A drop of 38%. The decline in milk volume increased with increasing parity. Cows that do not form a dry period due to premature birth or stillbirth have about 80% of the milk produced during the first and the positive births. The length of the dry milk period can be varied due to the age of the cow, the fullness of the broiler, and the amount of milk in the previous crop. Such as: high-yield cattle, old cattle, weak cattle can be extended to 75 days, low-yield cattle and good oxen can be shortened to 45 days. Poorly bred cattle should increase feed and nutrient concentrations during the 60-day dry milk period to promote the achievement of lyrical standards.
(b) Dry milk method and mastitis prevention Traditional dry milk method: When the dry milk is stopped, the concentrate feed is stopped and then the succulent feed is stopped. The number of milking or interval days is gradually reduced, and the date of suspension is longer. Fetal development and cow nutrient accumulation are very unfavorable. More rapid stoppages are now being implemented. One is to stop in 3 to 5 days and it is mostly used for cows with low milk intake in the later period; the other is to stop milking (regardless of the daily milk production) immediately after the scheduled day of dry milk, which is based on stopping milking. The physiological changes in the breast are determined. After stopping the milking for 24 hours, the acini wall and capillaries of the mammary gland are exposed to internal pressure (30 to 40 mmHg) due to the fullness of the milk, which stops the synthesis of milk. The concentration of milk in the acini causes an increase in milk concentration in the opposite direction. absorb. It can be imagined that the breasts will swell up and disappear within about 4 to 10 days. Within 10 days, the nipple bath should be repeated twice a day. During this period, visualizing changes in the breasts, a cow with a high milk yield was squeezed once, and then a slow-release antimicrobial drug was immediately injected to close the nipple hole (this is an effective method for preventing mastitis during dry milk). This method of stopping milk will not cause disorder to the normal digestive physiology of the cow, which is beneficial to the health of the cow. If the amount of lactation at the time of stopping the milk is still high, in order to stop the milk from being effective, the energy and protein quality can be properly controlled within 3 to 5 days. The breast of the cow should be closely monitored within 10 to 15 days after stopping the milk. If there is a hot pain or a lump in addition to the redness, it may indicate that the inflammation has occurred. In addition to the veterinarian's treatment, the cow should continue to be milked. After the inflammation disappeared, we stopped again. The first 10 days before delivery is also a frequent occurrence of mastitis, and the nipple medicated bath should be restored twice a day. Of course, not stopping the nipple bath during the entire dry period is more beneficial for prevention. The most prone to mastitis after stopping milk is not those cows with high milk yield, which are often cows with low milk volume (below 10 kg/day) and cows with longer calving interval and no dry milk. One is the negligence of artificially stopped breastfeeding; the other is inadequate exposure to subclinical mastitis, which causes an outbreak of inflammation due to the secretion of prolactin and the accumulation of colostrum at the time of labor (about 10 days). Great loss. To ensure dry milk, the breasts before dry milk must be healthy. To this end, the breast (including latent inflammation) should be monitored at least 2 times, if it is (+) or () at least 1 course of treatment, and then 2 consecutive monitoring results are all negative when the square Can stop milking. The use of drugs to seal the teat hole after dry milk is an effective means to prevent bacterial infection in the dry period. However, there is latent E. coli in the breast before dry milk, and the toxin can induce mastitis in cattle before and after labor. Cows after dry milk will be infected with mastitis if they are in a polluted and disinfected environment or if it is rainy, moist, hot and hot.
The prevention of mastitis during dry milk is an important part, but it is equally important at all stages of lactation. Only effective and perfect management is the best method. it includes:
1. Maintain environmental (including human) hygiene requirements, try to reduce stress stimuli (noise, heat, bad attitude towards cattle, etc.).
2. Carefully clean and disinfect the breasts before milking. The milk should be squeezed and the teat should be given after the milking.
3. The proper use of milking machinery, mechanical properties should be intact, must be trained before using the machine, basically understand the principle of machinery.
4. The milking cow should stand for a period of time (approximately 1 hour) until the nipple hole shuts itself down and rests on the ground (preferably after the first milking).
5. Normal nutrition and proper sensation.
6. Inject immunity-enhancing drugs and vaccines to increase the cow's own protection.
7. Regular monitoring of cattle and timely treatment.
8. Cows with clinical mastitis should be isolated or milked in order to cut off the infection route and the source of infection.
9. Timely elimination of old, weak, and low-producing cattle that are unrecoverable.
(3) Dry Milk Management Management Dry milk shall be immediately restored after the success of the reduced amount of the feed product, and the required feeding standards of the dry cow shall be met as soon as possible. At the same time, the amount of feed shall be determined according to the body condition of the dairy cow. In the previous month with good lyrical and roughage conditions, it was possible to increase the amount of hay, reduce the amount of concentrate, and even eliminate the need for concentrates. Poor lyrics can be given more than appropriate materials, be sure to reach the lyrical standard in the second dry dairy month. Dry milk management should pay attention to the following points.
1. The focus of the whole period is on miscarriage and preventing miscarriage.
2. To create a good and quiet environment for cattle free exercise or lying down, separate groups to avoid crowding and collision. It is more advantageous to properly grazing in good pastures.
3. Strengthen bovine hygiene and keep skin clean. The focus is on breast and hindquarters hygiene.
4. Massage the breast properly. Acceptance should start after 1 week of dry milk and 2 weeks before the birth.
5. To prevent the occurrence of abomasum shift, the hay in the diet should be properly used with some long grasses or pods that are 2 to 3 cm thick. Not less than 3 to 4 kilograms per day.
6. Place the cow in a cool, ventilated environment during the hot, humid summer. When necessary, diet nutrient concentrations should be increased.
7. Don't mutate feed varieties during dry milk so as not to disturb and cause dry cows to reduce feed intake because of the increased sensitivity of dry cows.
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