Anvil and spike incompatibility
The term â€œaffinityâ€ refers to the ability of rootstocks and scions grafted together to heal and grow. The size of this ability depends on the distance between the anvil and the ear: that is, the seedlings of the same species have strong affinity and grafting survival rate; The seedlings grafted survived or could not survive. If chestnuts use the same kind of seedlings as rootstocks, the grafting survival rate is high. Litsea chestnut and chestnut belong to the same species, with chestnut as the rootstock, grafting it chestnut, red hair, thin shell and other easy to survive, and grafting nine species, Jingxian chestnut, mountain bike red chestnut and so it is difficult to survive. The reason is that the rootstock and the scion are incompatible, the callus cannot grow, or the callus tissue cannot communicate with the transporting tissue, or other tissue is grown after connecting the transport tissue to cause the catheter or the screen tube to be blocked, and no nutrient exchange can be performed. Solution: When grafting seedlings, be sure to use varieties with good affinity and strong adaptability as rootstocks, and do not use rootstocks with incompatibility or poor affinity.
When grafting, the anvil and the cutting surface are not even, and the forming layers of the anvil and the ear are not tightly aligned, or the contacting parts are extremely scarce. After the grafting, the sprouts of the hair leaves consume the water and nutrients in the scion, and the rootstock can not be supplied and dried up. . Solution: Grafting operators must strictly follow the grafting procedures. The scion and rootstock must be flat and smooth. Both layers must be tightly aligned, the interface tightly closed, and the bandaging membrane must not be released prematurely. Engaged.
Sprouting sprouts buds
When the grafting time is too late, the scion has sprouted when grafted, and then the leaves are pulled out quickly. After the water and nutrients in the scion have been consumed, the interface has not yet generated the callus, resulting in the interruption of water and nutrients. Or the buds are too weak to send a few leaflets and lose their ability to grow and survive. Solution: Do a good job of scion storage, timely grafting; do not have sprouting scion and weak shoots, axillary bud scion.
Anvil too early
In the early spring, rootstocks were sowed, and fruit seedlings were grafted in the summer and autumn. After cutting an anvil, the anvil died together. The reason is that the nutrients in the seeds have been used up, and the sprouts and rootstocks after an anvil are forced to â€œstarve to deathâ€ because they have no leaves to make nutrients. Solution: 1 After 10 days of live, "anvil" at 5 centimeters on the interface. That is to say, the stems of the rootstock are broken by 2/3, leaving 1/3 connected, so that the upper leaves continue to produce nutrients to feed buds and shoots and to maintain the life of the stock. After the buds from the buds that grow up to grow to 30 cm high, the nutrients can be produced. Row anvil. 2 When grafting, leave 4-5 intact leaves under the interface. After the anvil is cut, the lower leaves will produce nutrients to supply budding leaves and rootstocks.
Dye intermediates, also referred to as intermediates, refer to various aromatic derivatives used in the production of dyes and organic pigments. They are derived from benzene, toluene, naphthalene, anthracene and other aromatic hydrocarbons from coal chemical and petrochemical industries through a series of organic synthesis unit processes. With the development of chemical industry, the application range of dye intermediates has been extended to pharmaceutical industry, pesticide industry, propellant and explosive industry, information recording materials industry, as well as auxiliaries, surfactants, spices, plastics, synthetic fibers and other production sectors. There are many kinds of dye intermediates, and hundreds of them are more important. The most important early dye intermediates, such as nitrobenzene, aniline, phenol, chlorobenzene and phthalic anhydride, have been developed into important basic Organic Intermediates because of their wide use and large dosage. The annual output in the world is more than one million tons. The most important dye intermediates are o-nitrochlorobenzene, p-nitrochlorobenzene, o-nitrotoluene, p-nitrotoluene, 2-naphthol, anthraquinone, 1-aminoanthraquinone and so on. Starting from the above intermediates and through a series of organic synthesis unit processes, various intermediates with complex structures can be prepared.
Dye intermediates mainly include benzene intermediates, toluene intermediates, naphthalene intermediates and anthraquinone intermediates, in addition, there are some heterocyclic intermediates. The main reaction processes of intermediate in production are nitration, sulfonation, halogenation, reduction, amination, hydrolysis, oxidation, condensation and so on. The synthesis of a complex intermediate often takes many unit processes, sometimes using different basic materials and different synthetic routes.
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