Occurrence and Control of Major Diseases and Pests in Rape

The main diseases that damage rapeseed are Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, downy mildew, white rust and virus disease; the main insect pests are aphids, cabbage caterpillars, cockroach leaf and triceps. Among them, sclerotinia and aphids are the most serious ones. If the control is not effective, the yield loss of rape can reach 20% to 30%.

I. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

1. Injury and occurrence characteristics: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, also known as rape soft rot, is an important disease of rapeseed. The main damage stems, leaves, flowers and rapeseed rape, the biggest damage to stem damage. When rape blossoms are scabbed, they often die of one plant and one plant, and peel off the lower stems. Many of them are sclerotia like rodents. At the seedling stage, soft rot occurs from the base of the seedlings and then spreads to the whole seedlings. The leaves turn grayish and the scald-like rot often causes agglomerates to die or the whole nest is withered; the adult stage begins, and after the culm is victimized, the disease department appears. Light yellow-brown water-stained lesions, the epidermis ruptured like a hessian when dry, and the diseased culms were rotted into hollows in the later stages, with white mycelia and saccharomycete sclerotia. Rapeseed victims suffer from fading whiteness, lean seeds and dull seeds. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum bacteria in the field or mixed in rapeseed, soil fertilization in summer or winter, when the temperature and humidity conditions are suitable, the sclerotia of the summer or winter germination grows like a scorpion-like sub-acoustic disk, emitting ascospores , Become the primary source of infection of this disease. After the ascospore matures, it is ejected from the ascendant and spreads to the rapeseed to produce hyphae as the wind propagates through the wound or senescent tissue. The ascospores only infect the senescent leaves and petals. The mycelium of the affected stems and leaves spreads to neighboring healthy plants through the contact between the leaves of rapeseed and leaves and infects them again. According to observations, the incidence of rape sclerotial sclerotia usually occurs twice, once in late November to December, and once in the next year from March to April (this period coincides with the flowering period of oleic susceptibility disease and is also a rape victim. In the main period of this time, rape and Sclerotinia disease will be serious if it encounters rainy, humid and warm weather during this period.

2. Control methods: adopt a comprehensive prevention and control method that eliminates the source of sterilization, enhances the disease resistance of plants and focuses on the protection of pesticides, and controls the occurrence and damage of rape sclerotia.

First, the selection of disease-resistant, high-yielding, high-yielding varieties with the characteristics of hard stems, lodging resistance, and short flowering duration can play a positive role in controlling or reducing the harm caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Secondly, through screening and water selection to remove the sclerotia mixed in the seeds, and then use 10% saline to select the seeds, remove the floating sclerotia, and then rinse with water, dry and sow. The third timely spraying protection controls the occurrence of Sclerotinia. The medication time is two times: one is around the end of November and the second is in the middle or late March. Drugs can be used for quick-acting pesticides, such as quick-acting, carbendazim, and chlorothalonil, and they are sprayed and treated once every 7 days. Or use 25% R & F library or 30% Ai Miao EC 3000 times spray.

Second, rape aphids

1. Injury and law of occurrence: The locusts that harm rape are mainly radish, alfalfa and peach pods. Both of these two locusts are intensively and staccatoly intensively on the backs, stems and flowers of rapeseed; the sap is sucked on the shaft and damages the leaf meat and chlorophyll; the leaves of the seedling stage suffer from curling and yellowing; the plants are dwarfed and grow slowly; when they are serious, Leaves dead. After the bolting of rapeseed, more concentrated damage to the lettuce, the formation of "cokes wax stick", affecting the flowering and scab, and the tender head and coke.

Taoyuan is more than 20 generations a year, and radish sprouts occur more than 30 generations a year. Both locusts occur in fields in the winter (brassica and other cruciferous vegetables) and fall into the rape field in autumn. The peak period is generally from mid-October to mid-November. Therefore, the sooner rapeseeds are planted, the more locusts that come from other crops (Crispyidae, etc.) will cause more damage. Since the optimum temperature range of the radish pods is wider than that of the peach pods, the radish pods on the rapeseeds in the autumn are mostly plentiful, and the peach pods are mostly in the spring. If the weather is dry in the autumn and spring, it can often cause aphids to occur; on the contrary, there are many wet and damp weather, the reproduction of aphids is suppressed, and the damage is lighter.

2. Control methods: Prevention and control of rape aphids should be based on chemical control. The pesticide should be applied in three periods: the first is the seedling stage (3 true leaves); the second stage is the initial stage of Honda's budding; in the third stage, more than half of the rapeseed plants are bolted to a height of about 10 cm. . But in these three periods, it is also necessary to determine how many locusts are to be used for pesticide application. In particular, the locusts should be taken into account during the pod-logging period. If the locusts are large in number, they must still be controlled by pesticides. Pharmacy selection of 40% giant Lei EC 1000 to 1200 times or 20% of a good 1000 to 1500 times winter emulsion.

Third, jump and armor

1, damage and the law of occurrence: jump A, also known as jump lattice, damage rape is mainly yellow song jump. Adults and larvae can all be harmed. The seedlings suffer the most. They often eat small holes and cause seedlings to be destroyed. Adults jump well and fly at high temperatures. After transplanting rapeseed, adults migrated from the nearby Cruciferae vegetables to rape, and the damage was most severe in autumn and spring.猿 甲 : : : : : : : : : : : 别名 别名 别名 别名 别名 别名 别名 别名 别名 别名 别名 。 别名 别名 别名 。 。 。 。. Adults and larvae feed on the leaves, and there are clusters of pests that cause damage to the leaves. Each year from April to May and from September to October is the peak period of two attacks, and rape is heavy in October.

2. Prevention and control methods: Jumping beetle and leafhopper can be combined together to prevent and control. Pharmaceuticals use 40% of giant thunder cream 800 to 1000 times, 20% of a good 800 to 1000 times of winter milk, or 4.5% of Baoluobao 1500 times.

Fourth, rape white rust and downy mildew

1. Injury and occurrence characteristics: rape rust: when the leaves are injured, a slightly shiny, white, and rosacea-like lesion grows on the back of the leaves; after the young stem and the flower axis are injured, the swollen and bent shape is “tap”-like. White sores. : Rapeseed downy mildew: Injury to the mouth of 10 pieces, when the air is wet, grow a layer of creamy moldy layer on the back. The disease first developed from the bottom lobe and gradually spread upwards. When the disease was severe, the leaves fell off and the plants withered. After the pedicel is damaged, it becomes fat and swollen, resembles a "leading cane" and has a frosty moldy layer. Scarf white rust and downy mildew are all specialized parasites. Their infection and transmission processes are basically the same and they are transmitted through wind and rain. During spring rape blossoms and scabs, when the cold wave is frequent, cold and warm weather is severe.

2. Control methods: In addition to strengthening agricultural technology measures, it is mainly pharmaceutical protection. At the beginning of the disease, 43% Dashengfu suspension agent was used 600-800 times; after the onset, 66.8% mildew WP was used 500-600 times.

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