Method for cultivation of needle mushroom off-season

Shell pecans, deciduous trees of the genus Hickory of the genus Walnut, native to the United States and Mexico, are one of the most important dried fruit species in the world. Thin shell pecan nutshell is thin, nutrient-rich, high health care value, quality is better than local walnut. In addition to direct consumption, benevolence still uses raw materials such as high-grade cooking oil and ice cream. Shell powder is a high-grade polishing material and is very expensive in the United States. Excellent wood material, can be used as furniture plywood and so on. Thin shell pecans enter the fruit period in about 15 years, and the fruit period is as long as 50 to 70 years.
I. Phenophase in Kunming, Yunnan, from the late March to early April is the budding period, the mid-April is the leafing period, from early April to late August is the rapid growth of new shoots, in mid-November is the deciduous period.
Second, the requirements of environmental conditions hi warm and humid climate, the average annual temperature of 15.2 °C is appropriate, the maximum temperature of resistance is 41.7 °C, more cold, -15 °C is also free from frost damage. However, the low temperature during flowering will affect flowering pollination and flower development.
Thin-shelled pecans require more water, and different water requirements during different periods of the year. Generally before the flowering spring shoots require appropriate amount of rain, from late April to mid-May flowering, avoid continuous rain, 6 to 9 months for the development of fruit and bare buds, requiring adequate rainfall and uniform. Not too demanding for lighting. In the young age, cool and cool environments are required. Therefore, hickory seedlings must be shaded artificially. Adult trees grow poorly on sunny slopes that dry to the sun. Soil is best made of loose, humus-rich limestone schist weathered with gravelly loam, and oily black soil, yellow mud soil developed on limestone, and yellow mud soil developed on sandstone, slate, and shale. Red soil and sand are not suitable for the growth of hickory.
Third, reproduction is currently dominated by sowing, and root shoots can also be used for propagation. The seeds for sowing require that the nuts be fully mature. After the seeds are harvested, they are sowed in the autumn by water selection, and the seeds must be placed horizontally during sowing. If it does not sow in the fall, it must be stored in layers of wet sand. Seedlings are generally cultivated for two years before they can be planted out of the garden. It can also be grafted and grafted in spring.
Fourth, planting should be selected soil layer deep, loose, abundant water, leeward sunny land cultivation. Plant spacing 4m5m ~ 7m8m is appropriate. Planting hole requirements diameter 1 ~ 1.5m, depth 1 ~ 1.2m; topsoil and soil are open, first put a layer of straw in the bottom of the pit, cover the topsoil to 20cm; put organic fertilizer 50kg, an enemy powder 20g, superphosphate 500g, and mix well with the soil. In December to January, seedlings were planted. After planting, secure the tree tray and pour enough root water. Live fruit trees can also be created. The sowing time is from October in winter to March in the following year. It can be carried out except in freezing weather. When transplanting, it is best to bring soil balls in close quarters. When it is transported for a long time, the seedlings will be immediately soiled with mud after they are dug up, which can provide protection.
Fifth, pruning early pruning should be light, appropriate to maintain the main branch, so that early results. When pruning, make sure that the interior of the canopy is airy and light-permeable. The upper branch of the early crown should be kept as far as possible. The lower part of the canopy can be gradually thinned, and the dense branches can be sawn if necessary. Saw mouth must be flattened and coated with protective agent to prevent corrosion.
After the hickory tree enters the aging period, it can be sawed off at the position above the regenerate branch of the tree crown, and the regenerated shoots that have germinated can be cultivated, and all the dead parts of the main branch of the old canopy can be cut off. While truncated, it is best to combine deep turning and fertilization.
Sixth, fertilization and management The output of Fengliang Park is more than 500kg per 667 square meters. In the 1 to 3 years of the establishment of the park, soybeans, corn and Atractylodes can be used as crops. During the intercropping process, the garden shall be cultivated and weeded, and the organic fertilizers such as coke ash, cake fertilizer, and manure shall be applied in appropriate amounts, and the woodland weeds, shrubs, thorns, vines, etc. shall be removed 1-2 times each year between July and August. The weeds were cut to cover the woodland and the cover was ploughed into the soil in winter to increase soil fertility.
Before germination every spring, about 30kg of urea is applied per 667m2 of land, 80kg of fruit tree special fertilizer is applied during fruit enlargement, and 3000kg of autumn basic fertilizer is applied. After entering the result period, fertilize the fertilizer according to the results. The spray can be sprayed once every 15 days or so, 0.3% urea is sprayed in the early and late stages of growth, and 0.3% of potassium dihydrogen phosphate is sprayed from June to July. Winter water and sprouting water. In the rainy season, it should be promptly drained and flooded.
The resulting tree was fertilized twice a year. In February, the ravine was opened along the tree plate, and each plant applied 20kg of corn stalks and 5kg of large manure. In July, fertilization was mainly compounded with ternary compound fertilizer, applying 0.2 kg per square meter.
VII. Pest control diseases mainly include leaf spot and scab, insects mainly include aphids and giardia. Focus on prevention and control of pests and diseases in orchards in winter. During the growth period, prevention and treatment shall be carried out in a timely manner based on the occurrence of pests and diseases. Flammulina velutipes is generally cultivated only in late autumn, winter and early spring, and counter-season cultivated enoki mushrooms may be listed in May-November. The anti-season cultivation techniques of mushroom are described as follows:
First, the cultivation season and the selection of strains The anti-season cultivation of the mushroom can be planted in the months from February to April, and the mushrooms from April to July can also be harvested from August to September. At present, there are 2 good varieties of Golden Mushrooms in the off-season cultivation in production: Jinxiang No.1 and Jinxiang No.2. Jinxiang No. 1 mycelium grows fast, and the fruiting period is resistant to high temperature; Jinxiang No. 2 mycelium grows at a temperature of 38°C and is suitable for early cultivation. The two mushroom species all have the characteristics of robust hyphae, strong resistance, high yield, and high quality.
Second, ingredients and bagging more reasonable formula for the cultivation of materials: 35% cotton shell, wood chips (or other crop stalks) 40%, bran (or rice bran) 18%, corn flour 2%, sugar 1%, compound fertilizer 2%, calcium carbonate 2%. After mixing the ingredients, adjust the water content to only 60%-65%, adjust the pH to 6.5-7.5, and then put it into a 12 cm 38 cm 0.005 cm low pressure polyethylene plastic bag. The culture material is packed to a height of about 15 cm. After compaction, a hole with a depth of 10 cm is placed in the middle of the material so that the hyphae can go down the surface of the hole and spread to the surroundings.
Third, sterilization and inoculation using atmospheric pressure sterilization, in the steam at 100 °C for 12 hours. The sterilized bag is then transferred into a sterile room and allowed to cool. After the bag cools, it shrinks. This way, when it is cultivated, it will not produce long-side mushrooms and consume nutrients from the culture. When the temperature of the material drops below 30°C, the bag is opened to access the strain. Inoculation work should be carried out in a sterile environment and sealed at any time.
Fourth, mycelium culture The inoculated material bag was placed in a clean, dry, ventilated, cool indoor culture. Doors and windows were covered with cover during the day to avoid light and ventilation was turned on at night. The temperature of the culturing room should be controlled below 30°C. In case of continuous high temperature weather, cooling measures such as splashing cold water should be taken. When the air humidity is high, some charcoal, lime, etc. can be placed in the room to absorb moisture. Generally after 20-25 days of cultivation, mycelium can send full bags.

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