Flower gray mold is one of the common diseases in flower production. It often occurs in the growing season of flowers. When the disease is light, it affects the growth of leaves. In severe cases, it can cause a large number of falling flowers and fallen leaves, affecting flowering and causing great harm to the quality and yield of flowers. .
First, the harmful symptoms of gray mold bacteria with mycelium, conidia, sclerotia attached to the sick or left over in the soil for winter. Mature conidia are transmitted through air currents, rainwater, irrigation water, shed water, and agricultural operations. The pathogens are mainly infected through wounds on plants, and can also be directly infiltrated from the defeated flower organs, necrotic tissues and epidermis. Warm and moist are the main conditions for the prevalence of gray mold. Gray mold is most likely to occur at temperatures around 18% relative humidity and 18Â°C â€‹â€‹to 25Â°C. When the air humidity is high, the disease develops rapidly; the flowerpots are densely covered and poorly ventilated in the greenhouse; the nitrogen fertilizer is too much and the plant tissues are tender and weak, and the disease is severe. Gray mold endangers a variety of herbs, woody flowers, such as cyclamen, Begonia, cineraria, fuchsia, Phalaenopsis, poinsettia, all seasons Primula, Strelitzia reginae, Gladiolus, and more than 50 kinds of flowers. Botrytis mainly damages the leaves and also harms branches, petioles, sepals, petals, fruits, and seeds. At the beginning of the disease, a nearly circular purple-brown spot appeared on the leaves, with a diameter of 1 to 5 mm, and then expanded into an irregularly shaped large spot with a diameter of 7 to 12 mm. The lesion was light yellow-brown in the center, and the edges were purple and brown. Concentric ring pattern. Lesions gradually spread into pieces, and when severe, the entire blade scorches. The purple-brown oblong small spots appeared on the branches, and the lesions spread slowly. Symptoms on the petiole were similar to those of the branches, but the lesions were long strips with dark green molds on them.
Second, comprehensive prevention (a) selection of disease-resistant varieties. Such as carnation, safflower varieties than yellow flower varieties resistant to disease, under the same conditions, safflower varieties than yellow flower cultivars. (b) Seed treatment. Seeds are soaked in 10% trisodium phosphate solution for 20 minutes, rinsed for 40 minutes, and dried for use. It can also be soaked in warm water of 52Â°C for 30 minutes, and dried after use. (c) soil disinfection. The pathogens mainly live in the soil during the winter. Therefore, whether it is garden or potted plants, it is required that the soil be disease-free new soil and the pots and bulbs be disinfected. (d) reduce the source of the disease. In order to reduce the source of the disease, the diseased flowers, diseased leaves, and other debris should be removed at any time, and withered flowers should also be removed in time. For planting with bulbs and seedlings, the diseased plants should be removed before planting, soaked in 0.3% to 0.5% copper sulfate solution for 30 minutes, washed with water and dried. (e) Strengthen field management. Try to use sufficient organic fertilizer, increase phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, pay attention to controlling the amount of nitrogen fertilizer, prevent leggy and increase disease resistance. Pay attention to ventilation and light, there should be enough space between the flower pots. Watering should follow the principle of seeing dry see wet, basin soil should not be too wet to prevent accumulation of water. Daejeon should pay attention to the ventilation between plants, and timely drainage after rain. In the management process, plant damage should be minimized to prevent the invasion of pathogens. Watering and fertilizing should not be too much. Do not spray water as much as possible. Watering is best injected from the edge of the flowerpot to avoid excessive humidity on the leaf surface. Avoid watering in rainy days. When the watering is over, it should be released. Control the watering after onset, and if necessary, pour on the rhizomes. It is best not to mix different flowers in the same greenhouse. Reducing humidity and reducing condensation on roofs and foliage. The greenhouse must reduce the humidity to less than 80%, especially when the temperature rises in sunny days after continuous cloudy days. This work must be carried out in a timely manner. The optimum temperature for the incidence of gray mold is 20Â°Cï½ž25Â°C. The germs above 32Â°C stop infection, growth and reproduction. Using this feature, protected cultivation can control the development and spread of germs by increasing the temperature. Generally, the air is released late in the morning. However, the temperature in the afternoon needs to be maintained at 20Â°C to 25Â°C. When the temperature drops to 20Â°C, the air vents are closed so that the night temperature is maintained at 15Â°C to 17Â°C. (6) Conduct timely chemical control. At present, there are no specific medicines for preventing and controlling flower gray mold, and prevention should be the main method. It can be sprayed on the leaves or fumigated and dusted. Before and at the onset of the disease, they were sprayed with Bordeaux mixture and sprayed every 14 days. After the onset, diseased leaves are cut off promptly and sprayed with medicaments for prevention and treatment. Generally, protective fungicides are used, such as 50% quick-cloning 1000-2000 sputum, 50% polymyxin 1000-fold, etc., usually every 7 to 10 days. Spray once. Spray time is best after 9am and avoid spraying on hot and dry days. Should use a variety of agents alternately to prevent drug resistance. Fumigation can use 10% of fast-king agent, 20% of 100-speed smoke, and fumigation for 3 to 4 hours. Fumigation can be carried out on rainy days or after watering, preferably after closing the tuyere in the evening. The effect is good when the humidity is high and it is not suitable for spraying medicaments. Spray dust can be used in thick wind-free massifs and closed sheds. Effective medicines are 10% extinction compound powder, 5% chlorothalonil compound powder, 6.5 carbendazim dust agent, every 9-10 days Spray once, use it alternately or alternately with other methods 2 to 3 times. Spray on top of the plant and close the booth after spraying to prevent the dust from drifting under the influence of airflow. It is best to spray dust in the evening or on cloudy days.
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