Bud grafting is a common grafting method for flowers and trees, and it is most suitable for autumn. Generally, the survival rate can reach more than 90%. In particular, some seedlings with fruit and budding in the autumn can update the variety and ensure the fruit set in the following year. In the Yangtse River Basin and the area south of the country, the timing of flower buds and buds is more appropriate in September. The technical points are now described as follows.
In the autumn, budding takes time to grasp. If the buds are picked up too early and the sprouting development is not sufficient, the rootstocks are in a prosperous stage. The accumulation of nutrients in the body is less and the bud survival rate is low, and the sprouting buds are vulnerable to freezing after germination. If the buds are picked up too late, the physiological function weakens and it is not easy to peel off. Afterwards, healing is difficult. From late August to mid-September, it is suitable period. Different regions can be appropriately advanced or postponed depending on the weather conditions.
Generally, the buds in the mid-section of the shoots should be selected for budding. The buds at the top and the buds at the bottom should not be used. Bud size should be appropriate, buds too small, the contact surface with the rootstock is small, difficult to survive afterwards; buds are too large, easy to fold when inserted into the rootstock interface, resulting in poor contact, low survival rate. Particular attention should be paid to the fact that the grafting must have a vascular bundle (commonly known as a sprout pad), which is the pathway through which moisture and Other nutrients are exchanged between the sprout and the rootstock. Without it, it is difficult to survive, resulting in failure of budding. Under normal circumstances, the buds should be cut into shields or ring blocks, and the length of the shield-shaped buds should be 15 cm to 20 cm. The size of the buds in the ring block shape should be determined according to the thickness of the rootstock and budding shoots.
In the implementation of budding, the rootstock must be processed and then cut buds, so that the side pick mining. If scion is collected from a distance, care should be taken to ensure that the scion branches are moisturized. Do a good job with cutting, in order to maintain the moisture of budding and improve the survival rate. Buds are generally used in the fall to adopt the "D" shaped or circular two methods. When adopting the "D" shaped bud connection, first cut the rootstock from the ground 3cm to 5cm to a "T"-shaped mouth, the depth to be able to peel the bark, can see the xylem as degree, and then use the tip to carefully peel the rootstock tree The skin, the budding of the shield with the petiole is quickly embedded, with a 1 cm wide plastic band tightly tied, only the buds and petioles exposed, after dressing is more than 1 cm to 1.5 cm above and below the incision is appropriate. After the rootstock was cultivated with loose soil and cultivated 10 centimeters in height. After 10 to 15 days, the soil was planed and checked for survival. If the buds were fresh green, the petioles touched and fell, indicating that they had survived; otherwise, they did not survive. For those who do not live, they can be reattached on the back of the rootstock.
The seedlings sprouted in the fall of the following year were cut at 18 centimeters and 20 centimeters above the bud contact point (ie live pile) after the spring of the bud, and the knots were untied. 3 to 4 prunings in the summer, cut branches from the rootstock in time. When buds reach a new height of 8 cm to 10 cm, they are tied to a live pile near the base to prevent being blown by the wind. When they grow to 20 cm to 25 cm, they are tied at the upper end until they are newly grafted. Lignification, cutting live piles, the new seedlings can continue to stay in the seedbed to grow large seedlings. Special attention should be paid to fertilizer and water management. For poor bed fertility, available thin organic fertilizers such as human and animal manure and urine water can be applied. When topdressing chemical nitrogen fertilizers such as urea, fertilizers should be added at the same time to promote the healthy growth of seedlings.
After sprouting seedlings should pay attention to promptly remove the sprouts of rootstocks, which can reduce the waste of fertilizer, and can eliminate these sprouts due to the growth of lush and easy to incur the harm of pests. For some precious flowers and nursery stocks, we should also pay attention to the use of shading nets to prevent overcasting in the summer, so as to prevent the seedlings that have survived from being exposed to too much water due to light, resulting in poor growth.
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